Exposure to flour dust in flour mill factories may cause diverse lung diseases with different severity of symptoms ranging from simple irritation to allergic rhinitis or occupational asthma; long-term exposure to flour dust can cause chronic lung problems. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of exposure to flour dust on the respiratory system and pulmonary function of wheat flour mill workers in the Duhok district. A cross-sectional study was performed among 63 workers who had direct contact with wheat flour mills. The data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and digital spirometry. The workers’ mean age ± (SD) was 29.79 ± 10.60 years. The current study showed the predicted Forced vital capacity (FVC) mean ± (SD) 105.34 L (±) 25.96 L, and the predicted Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) mean ± (SD) 97.90 L (±) 18.65 L, and the predicted FEV1/FVC mean ± (SD) 95.82 L (±) 17.61 L. About 43(68.3%) of workers were normal,10(15.9%) had mild pulmonary obstruction followed by moderate restriction, 5(7.9%), and 3(4.8%) had mild pulmonary restriction. The mild obstructive disorder is more among normal Body Mass Index (BMI) persons, while restrictive disorders are more among overweight workers. This study showed no significant statistical association between PFTs and respiratory symptoms (sneezing, rhinorrhea, change of voice, dyspnea and cough), BMI, and the duration of working in the wheat flour mills.
Altalag, A., Road, J., Wilcox, P., Aboulhosn, K. (2019). Pulmonary Function Tests in Clinical Practice.2nd edition. Springer.
Demeke, D., Haile, D.W. (2018). Assessment of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function status among workers of flour mills in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Comparative Cross-Sectional Study. Pulm Med,2018:9521297.
Elms, J., Robinson, E., Rahman, S., Garrod, A. (2005). Exposure to flour dust in UK bakeries: Current use of control measures. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 49(1), 85–91.
Gholami, A., Sajedifar, J., Tatari, M., Teimori, G., Tazeroudi, A., Abbaspour, S. (2018). Respiratory and pulmonary function problems among flour mills workers in east of Iran. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics, 12(2), S779–S785.
Hosseinabadi, M.B., Krozhdeh, J., Khanjani, N., Zamani, A., Ranjbar, M., Mohammadian, M. (2013). Relationship between Lung Function and Flour Dust in Flour Factory Workers Original Article. Journal of Community Health Research, 2(2), 138–146.
Ijadunola, K. T., Erhabor, G.E., Onayade, A.A., Ijadunola, M.Y., Fatusi, A. O., Asuzu, M.C. (2005). Pulmonary functions of wheat flour mill workers and controls in Ibadan, Nigeria. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 48(4), 308–317.
Lagiso, Z.A., Mekonnen, W.T., Abaya, S.W., Takele, A.K., Workneh, H.M. (2020a). Chronic respiratory symptoms, lung function and associated factors among flour mill factory workers in Hawassa city, southern Ethiopia: “comparative cross-sectional study.” BMC Public Health, 20(1), 1–9.
Lagiso, Z.A., Mekonnen, W.T., Abaya, S.W., Takele, A.K. (2020b). Chronic respiratory symptoms, lung function and associated factors among flour mill factory workers in Hawassa city, southern Ethiopia: “comparative cross-sectional study”. BMC Public Health. 20,909 1–9.
Mekonnen, T.H., Dessie, A., Tesfaye, A.H. (2021). Respiratory symptoms related to flour dust exposure are significantly high among small and medium scale flour mill workers in Ethiopia: a comparative cross-sectional survey. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 26, 96 (2021) .
Melo, C., Konda, S., Shah, T., Padwale, Y. (2016). Lung function abnormalities in flour mill workers using spirometry. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 5(4), 743.
Mohammadien, H.A., Hussein, M.T., El-Sokkary, R.T. (2013). Effects of exposure to flour dust on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of mill workers. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis, 62, 745-753.
Rafiee-pour, A., Rafiee-pour, E., Asghari, M., Zadeh, N.G., Dehghan, F. (2015). Respiratory effects of exposure to flour dust: A case study among workers of flour production factories in Arak. Journal of Paramedical Sciences, 6(3), 79–84.
Said, A.M., Abdel-Fattah, E.B., Almawardi, A.-A.M. (2017). Effects on the respiratory system due to exposure to wheat flour. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis, 66(3), 537–548.
Weir, C.B., Jan, A. (2022). BMI Classification Percentile and Cut-Off Points In StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan. 31082114.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2022 Array