Evaluation of Health and Environmental Safety in Food and Water Production Factories in Duhok Governorate


environmental safety
food factories
Duhok province

How to Cite

Abdulrahman, M., & Bebo, K. (2021). Evaluation of Health and Environmental Safety in Food and Water Production Factories in Duhok Governorate. Journal of Life and Bio Sciences Research , 2(02), 54 - 58. https://doi.org/10.38094/jlbsr20244


Lack of adequate occupational safety and health strategies is a reason that workplace accidents in food and water production industries remain high, making this sector one of the riskiest operations worldwide. The research was carried out to examine the degree of implementing the health, occupational and environmental safety measures in the selected factories to assess health and safety level and to measurement the noise levels in these industries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by utilizing structured pre-tested questionnaire and noise level measured at four places: selling, administrative, machine and passage industry places. The study revealed the absence of health and safety policy, and the absence of safety and training departments. The suitable measures in place to combat harmful dust generated by motor traffic were present in 23.3%, and the system with deal with the spillage was current in 43.3% of factories. Wastes segregation was found in 3.3%. Exhaust dilution ventilation system was seen in 83.3% of these factories. Personal protection equipment was not provided to all workers exposed to dust, fumes, or gases. Only 3.3% of factory staffs were aware of fire prevention and safety measures. The sound level at the machine place was above average (above 85 decibels) in all factories.



Al-Dosky, B.H.A. (2014). Noise level and annoyance of Industrial factories in Duhok city. IOSR- Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 2014,8(5), 1-8.

Anthony , T.R., Altmaier, R., Jones, S., Gassman, R., Park, J.H., Peters, T.M. (2015). Use of Recirculating Ventilation with Dust Filtration to Improve Wintertime Air Quality in a Swine Farrowing Room. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 12(9), 635-46.

Cahill, L. B., Kane, R. W. (2010). Environmental health and safety audits. Government Institutes.

Chien, C.L., Tsai, C.J., Ku, K.W., Li, S. N. (2007). Ventilation Control of Air Pollutant during Preventive Maintenance of a Metal Etcher in Semiconductor Industry. Aerosol and Air Quality Research,7(4), 469-488.

Chikono, N.N. (2017). Leadership Practices That Improve the Workplace Safety Environment.Ph D thesis, Walden University, College of Management and Technology, Minneapolis, USA. Retrived May 15, 2021, from https:// scholarworks.waldenu.edu/ cgi/ viewcontent.cgi?article=4538andcontext=dissertations.

CCOHS. (2021). OSH Answers Fact Sheets, Canadian center for occupational Health and safety. Retrieved August 21, 2021 from https://www.ccohs.ca/ osh answers / prevention/ ventilation/ introduction.html.

Day, R., Rowland, E., Reader, J.A. (2003). Health Safety and Environment Legislation. A Pocket Guide. First edition :Royal Society of Chemistry.

Deborah, I.N. Robert, Y.N., Marisol C.B., Marilyn F. (2005). The global burden of occupational noise-induced hearing loss. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 48(6), 446-458.

DPHA. (2019). Directorate of Preventive Health Affairs in Duhok Governorate. Annual Statistics.

FAO. (2021). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrived February 28, 2021, from http://www.fao.org/dairy-production-products/products/ types-and-characteristics /en/.

Goetsch, D.L. (2015). Occupational safety and health for technologists, engineers, and managers. Eighth edition: Pearson.

Hassan, S.A. (2012). Health, safety and environmental practices in the construction sector of Pakistan. Master thesis, Uppsala University, Sweden. Retrived May 25, 2021, ftom http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/ get/diva2: 562426 / FULLTEXT01.pdf.

Hsu, H.I., Chen, M.R., Wang, S.M., Chen, W.Y., Wang, Y.F., Young, L. H., Huang, Y.S., Yoon, C.S. Tsai, P.J. (2012). Assessing Long-Term Oil Mist Exposures for Workers in a Fastener Manufacturing Industry Using the Bayesian Decision Analysis Technique. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 12(5), 834-842.

Ibrahim, I.B., Aremu, A.S., Ajao, K.R., Ojelab, A.T. (2014). Evaluation of Noise Pollution and Effects on Workers during Wheat Processing.Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 18, (4), 599-601.

Koren, H., Bisesi, M. (2016). Handbook of Environmental Health, Volume II: Pollutant Interactions in Air, Water, and Soil. Fourth edition: CRC press.

Leitão, S., Greiner, B.A. (2016). Organizational safety climate and occupational accidents and injuries: an epidemiology-based systematic review. Work stress, 30(1), 71-90.

Levy, B.S., Wegman, D.H., Baron, S.L., Sokas, R. K. (2011). Occupational and Environmental Health: Recognizing and Preventing Disease and Injury.Sixth edition: Oxford University Press.

NRCRA. National Research Council of the Research Academies. (2011).Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards. Updated version:The national Acedemic Press. Retrived May 5, 2021, from https://www.ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/books/NBK55873/#ch2.s9.

OSHA. (2021). Personal protection equipment. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Retrived April 22, 2021 from https:// www. osha.gov/personal-protective-equipment.

Rudolphi, J.M. (2017). Occupational safety and health of young adult agricultural workers. PhD thesis Graduate College, The University of Iowa,USA.Retrieved May 29,2021, from https://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/5617/.

Suryakantha, A. (2014). Community Medicine With Recent Advances.Third edition: Jaypee Brothers,Medical Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Tamene, A., Afework, A., Mebratu, L. (2020). A Qualitative Study of Barriers to Personal Protective Equipment Use among Laundry Workers in Government Hospitals, Hawassa, Ethiopia. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 1-14.

Taylor, B.(2007). Effective environmental, health, and safety management using the team approach. First Edition: Kindle Edition: Wiley-Inter science.

Yousif, K.M., Mahdi, B.H. (2013) . Effects of Occupational Noise Exposure on Arterial Blood Pressure of Workers in Selected Industrial Places in Duhok City. Science Journal of University of Zakho, 1(1), 308-318.

Zhou, J., Jiang, L.X., Zhang, X.J. (2007). Determination of the poisonous and hazardous factors in the worksites of the enterprises of Futian District. Occupational Health, 4: 256-257.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2021 Array