It took over 30 years for first description of the synthesis of fructosamines and this was conducted through non-enzymatic protein-glucose reactions (also known as glycation). Fructosamines in mammalian cells has not been known until recently. It transforms spontaneously into advanced glycation end products. The discovery of fructosamine 3-kinase, which is a novel enzyme, in human reveals the existence of a previously unknown intracellular metabolism of these substances. Protein-bound fructosamines are phosphorylated by fructosamine 3-kinase with high affinity on a third carbon atom of the deoxyfructose moiety and this results in fructosamine 3-phosphates. These later substances are unstable and spontaneously break down into inorganic phosphate and 3-deoxyglucosone, regenerating the unglycated amine in the process. The fact that many prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes contain proteins connected to fructosamine 3-kinase shows that this 'deglycation' process is not exclusive to mammals. The current study aims at determining the normal values of fructoseamine 3-kinase enzyme in the control group as well as in the group of patients with type II diabetes (the experimental group). The relationship of enzyme activity with some biochemical variables was also studied in patients with type 2 diabetes, due to the association of these variables with high blood sugar, as shown by previous studies. The Research dealt with the investigation of Fructosamine 3-Kinase activity and some biochemical variables for (136) Type 2 diabetes patients. The results indicated that there was a significant increase in Fructosamine 3-Kinase activity in type 2 diabetes patients (253 ng/l) in comparison to the control group. The normal value of enzyme in the control group was (181ng/l) and the activity of the enzyme in control group individuals was not affected by age and sex. The research also showed a significant decrease in the level of iron, zinc, chromium and sodium as well as a significant increase in the potassium level in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to the control group individuals. Additionally, the research predicted that there is a significant decrease in the levels of vitamins C and E. Also, it was shown that there was a significant increase in malondialdehyde level and a myeloperoxidase activity in type 2 diabetes patients. Activity of FN3K increased in type 2 diabetes compared to the control group individuals. It was noted that the activity of FN3K in the control group was not affected by age or sex.
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